The Book of Tobit presents a man who is very careful in his way of living, giving to the poor, helping the needy and one who is a good example of how life should be lived. He is also a devout believer in Judaism and seeks to fulfill all that might conceivably be required as the result of his faith.

Thanks to his devoted son, Tobias, who is assisted by the angel Raphael, who visits him under the disguise of Azariah, Tobit is able to recover his eyesight and gains a devoted daughter-in-law, named Sarah. This is accomplished because Tobias exorcises Asmodeus, the demon who has possessed Sarah. She has been married seven times but on their wedding night each of the husbands dies.

The time has now come that Tobias is the next in line, based on the Levirate Marriage Law, to become Sarah’s husband. He must travel from Nineveh to Ecbatana where Sarah is living. Tobias is accompanied on his journey to Ecbatana by the angel Raphael, in the form of Azariah, who guides and advises him along the way and concerning the curse on Sarah.

The Levirate Marriage Law declared that if a woman became a widow, not having a son, she is to be married to the closest male relative. A son, born as the result of that marriage would be considered to be the son of the first (the deceased) husband, to continue the inheritance that would have belonged to that husband’s offspring. Now Tobias was the next nearest relative and is to become Sarah’s husband.

Through the help of Raphael (a.k.a: Azariah), the curse is lifted and the marriage is consummated. In addition, Tobit, who is suffering from blindness is cured when Tobias and Sarah return to Nineveh.

The book was perhaps written in Hebrew but came into the Alexandrian Canon in Greek. While it gives the impression that it is a historical account the book perhaps is best understood as a romance of Diaspora-Judaism. It was perhaps in its Greek form in about 225 – 175 BCE. There is evidence of some late Hebrew translations, as well as Syriac, Ethioptic, and Sahidic versions, as well as portions of the book found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.

There seem to be three different recensions of the book of Tobit. This translation

is an attempt to offer a coalition of the three recensions. Those texts that are used are Codex Sinaiticus (the best and clearest text); Codex Vaticanus (B); and Codex Alexandrinus. Additional use is made of the Musnter Texts: No. 1251; No. 130; and No. 194. Other textual sources are: Faius; a 12C. text; the London Text; and the Gaster ext which is based on the Midrassh, and the Vulgate. The coalition that follows is an attempt to recognize the various texts and blend them into one acceptable translation.

There is no information as to where this book might have been written. Some scholars feel it was written in Egypt, other, in Media. The author was a devout Jew who knew the Scriptures very well.




1 The Book of Tobit tells the story of Tobit, the son of Hananuel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, son of Raphael, son of Raguel, a descendant [5] of Asiel, of the tribe of Naphtalai, 2 who in the days of King Shalmaneser, [6] of the Assyrians was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is south of Kedesh Naphtali in Upper Galilee, above Asher, toward the west and north of Phogor.

Tobit’s Early Life

3 I, Tobit made truth and righteousness my life long guide, doing many acts of charity to my relatives and nation who had gone into exile in Nineveh in the land of the Assyrians. 4 Already when I was quite young, living in the land of Israel, the entire tribe of my ancestors in the tribe of Naphtali rejected the dynasty of David and Jerusalem, in spite of the fact that this city had been had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all these tribes of Israel should offer sacrifices and where the temple, the dwelling place of God, had been consecrated and established for all generations as the place of worship for ever.

5 All my relatives and the entire ancestral tribe of Naphtali sacrificed to the calf [7] that King Jeroboam, the king of Israel, had built as a lasting place of worship in Dan and on all the mountains of Galilee.

Tobit’s Faithfulness to His Religion

6 I, however, often went to Jerusalem for the festivals that had been prescribed as lasting times of worship, by an everlasting decree. I would hurry off to Jerusalem, with the first fruits of my crops and the firstlings of the flock, the tithes of the cattle and the wool from the first shearing of the sheep. 7 All this would be given to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. Additionally I gave the tenth of the grain, wine, olive oil, pomegranates, figs, and the rest of the fruits to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem. I also saved up a second tithe (or, tenth) in money, from the income of my crops and distribute that in Jerusalem. 8 The third tithe, I would distribute to the orphans and widows and to those who had recently become proselytes (or, new converts to Judaism), who had become believers in the religion of Israel. I would bring the money, giving it to them every third year, at which time we would eat in accordance to the ordinances decreed regarding it in the Law of Moses; and according to the instructions of Deborah, the mother of my father Tobel, [8] for my father had died and left me an orphan.

Tobit’s Faithfulness in Exile

9 When I became a man and had married a woman, [9] a member of our own family, and it was through her I became the father of a son who I named Tobias.

10 Even in the country to which I was taken, the country of Assyriaa, and living as a captive in Nineveh, everyone of my relatives and my nation ate the food of the Gentiles, 11 though I scrupulously avoided doing so, 12 for I kept the understanding of God present in my heart at all times.

God’s Favor Toward Tobit

13 The Most High God then showed me grace and favor and good standing with Shalmaneser, and I became his purchasing agent. 14 Until the death of Shalmaneser I purchased everything for him, going to Media to do so. While I was in the country of Media I left bags of silver worth ten talents in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabri

15 Upon the death of King Shalmaneser, his son Senacherib reigned in his place and the highways into Media became unsafe and I was unable to go there.

Courage in Burying the Dead

16 In the days of Shalmanezer I performed many charitable acts for my relatives and members of the tribes [of Israel]. 17 I would give my food to the hungry, and my clothing to the naked, and if I saw the body of someone among the people of my race who was deceased, had been thrown out behind the wall of Nineveh, I would bury it. 18 If Sennacherib, the king, had put anyone to death who was fleeing from Judah, because of the blasphemies which Sennacherib had committed, many people of Israel were executed because of his rage. These I would bury, though Sennacherib looked for them, he was unable to find them. 19 It was then that one of the Ninevites informed the king about me, that I was burying them, so I went into hiding, for I was afraid. When I realized that the king knew what I had been doing, and he was searching for me, that he might also execute me, I ran away in fear. 20 At that time all my property was confiscated: nothing was left to me that was not taken to the royal treasury except my wife Anna and my son Tobias.

Tobit’s Nephew Rescues Him

21 Hardly forty [10] days had passed when Sennacherib’s sons killed him and then fled to the mountains of Ararat; and his son Esar-haddon [11]reigned in his stead. He appointed Ahikar, the son of my brother Hanael [12] over all the accounts of the kingdom, and he had authority over the entire administration. 22 Ahikar interceded for me, and I was able to return to Nineveh. Ahikar now was the chief cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administering the accounts under King Sennacherib of Assyria, so Esar-haddon reappointed him [thus making him second to the king]. He was my nephew, thus being a close relative.


A Family Celebration

1 During the reign of Esar-haddon I returned to my home: and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me. At the time of our festival of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of weeks, a lavish meal was prepared for me and I reclined to eat. 2 When the table was set for me, and I saw the abundance of food that was placed before me, I said to my son Tobias, “Go my son, and see if you can find any poor person among our people, the exiles in Nineveh, who takes God’s commands seriously. [13] and we will eat together. I will await your return.”

A Murder in Nineveh

3 Having faithfully searched, Tobias came back and said, “Father, and I replied, “Yes, my son.” He answered, “One of the people of our nation has been murdered (or, strangled). His body has been thrown, naked, into the market place. [14] 4 Prior to my even tasting anything I jumped up and removed the body, [15] taking it to a sheltered location outside [the city wall]. 5 Upon my return I washed myself, and ate my food. 6 Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he spoke against Bethel [16]:

“Your festivals will be turned into mourning,

and all your songs into lamentation,”

and I wept.

7 When the sun had set I went out and dug the grave and buried him. 8 My neighbors ridiculed me, saying, “He still is not afraid. He has already been hunted down and could have been killed for doing this, so he ran away, and yet here he is, doing the same thing all over again.”

Tobit Becomes Blind

9 That same night, after returning from burying the man, and because I was defiled, I washed myself and went into my courtyard and slept close to the wall of the courtyard. My face was uncovered because it was very warm. 10 I did not realize that there were sparrows on the wall, and their fresh droppings fell directly into my eyes, which caused a white film to form on my eyes. I went to physicians to be healed but the more they treated me with ointments, the problem worsened, and I was unable to see because of the white film and I became blind. I was unable to see for four years and my relatives all were sorry for me but did not help. Ahikar [17] took care of me for two years before he went to Elymais.

Tobit’s Wife Earns Their Livelihood

11 My wife Anna earned money at spinning and weaving [18] 12 She used to send the material to the owners, and they would pay her wages. On one day, the seventh of Dystrus, when she cut off a piece that she had woven and delivered it to the owners, they paid her the wages that she had earned, and gave her a young goat from their herd for a meal. 13 When she came home the goat began to bleat. I said to her, “Where did you get the young goat? It is not stolen, is it? Return it to the owner! It is not right to eat what has been stolen!” 14 She said, “It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages.” But: I did not believer her and told her to return the goat to its owner. My face was livid for I was so filled with anger. She then replied: “Where are all your good deeds? Where is your righteousness? Now everyone can see what sort of person you are!”


Tobit’s Prayer

1 Then I was filled with grief and anguish, so I wept, and prayed with anguish in my being:

2 “You are the righteous one, O Lord,

and all your deeds are just,

all your acts are filled with mercy and truth,

as you judge the world. [19].

3 Now O Lord, remember me,

and look upon me with favor.

Do not wreak vengeance upon me

because of my sins;

for my sins of omission,

and do not hold against me

the sins of my ancestors.

They have sinned against you

4 and they have disobeyed your commandments.

You gave us over to plunder, exile and death,

to become the talk and byword

and the object of reproach

for all the nations in whose land

you have dispersed us!

5 Now your many judgments are true

for you have exacted penalty

from me because of my sins.

We have not kept your commandments

and have not walked in the way

of truth that you have expected of us.

6 Now therefore: deal with me as you will;

declare that my spirit be taken away,

so that I might be released

from the face of the earth and become dust.

It is better for me that I die, rather than live.

because I have had to listen to

undeserved ridicule,

and the sorrow within me is great.

Give the command, O Lord, that I be

released from this distress,

release me to go to the eternal home,

do not turn your face from me, O Lord,

It is better for me to die

than to see so much turmoil in my life,

and to listen to ridicule.”

Sarah is Falsely Accused

7 On that very day, at Ecbatana, in Media, Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by one of her father’s maids. 8 because she had been married to seven husbands, and the wicked demon Asmodeus had killed each one of them prior to their having intercourse, (which was customary for wives). The maid said to her, “You are the one who kills [20] your husbands! Look! You have already been married to seven husbands and not become pregnant by a single one of them. 9 What right have you to beat us? Is it because your husbands are dead? Go to be with them. May we never see a son or daughter of yours!

Sarah’s Prayer for Death

10 On the day that she heard this, she was very depressed and wept. When she had gone up to her father’s upper room she intended to hang herself. As she thought it over she said to herself, No one is ever going to say to my father, ‘You had only one beloved daughter and she hanged herself because of her distress.’ I will not bring my father down to the abode of the dead in his old age with sorrow. It is better for me not to hang myself, but to pray to the Lord that I may die and not listen to these reproaches any more.” 11 Immediately following that she stood with her hands outstretched toward the window and prayed, saying:

“Blessed are you, O merciful God!

Blessed is your name forever;

let all your works praise you forever.

12 Now, O Lord, [21] I look to you,

and I look up to you.

13 Command that I be released from living on this earth,

and that I will never hear any more reproaches.

14 You know, O Master, that I am innocent

that I am still a virgin,

15 and that I have not disgraced my name

or the name of my father

in this land of my exile.

I am my father’s only child,

he has no other children who can be his heir,

and he has no close relatives

for whom I should keep myself to become a wife.

I have already had seven husbands,

all of whom have died.

Why should I still live

But if this is not your will,

O Lord, that you take my life,

Hear me in my disgrace.”

An Answer to Prayer

16 At that same moment, the prayers of both were heard in the glorious presence of God. 17 Raphael was sent to heal both of them. Tobit, by removing the white films that covered his eyes, and Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, by giving her [22] in marriage to Tobias son of Tobit, and by freeing her of the wicked demon Asmodeus. Tobias was entitled to have heard ahead of all others who had desired to marry her. At the same time that Tobit returned from the courtyard into his house. Sarah, daughter of Reguel came down from her upper room.


Tobit Gives Instruction to His Son

1 On that very day Tobit remembered the money that he had deposited, in trust, with Gabael at Rages in Media, 2 and he said to himself, “Now I have asked for death. [23]. Shouldn’t I call my son Tobias and explain to him about the money [24] before I die?” [25] 3 I therefore called him and said, “My son, when I die provide me with a proper burial. Honor your mother and do not abandon her during her life time. Do for her what pleases her. 4 Keep in mind, my son, for she faced many difficulties (or, dangers) when you were in her womb. When she dies, bury her beside me, in the same grave.

5 “Remember the Lord our God all the days of your life and refrain from sin or transgression God’s commandments. Live an upright life and do not walk in the path of the wrongdoers, 6 for it is those who do what is true will prosper in all that they do. [26] [7 Give alms from your possessions to all who are in need,. Do not look begrudgingly at the gift when you give it. Do not turn you face away from anyone who is in poverty; and the face of God will not turn away from you. 8 If you possess many possessions, give your gift proportionately, based on your possessions. If you have little, do not fail to give even though it is little, but base your gifts according to your possessions. [27] 9 Thus you will be lying up a sound inheritance against the day of adversity. 10 The giving of gifts to the needy (or, alms) delivers you from death and will keep you from going into the Darkness. 11 All who make it their practice to give gifts to those in need are carrying out a practice which is the evidence of an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High.

12 Beware, my son, of every kind of fornication. First of all, take a wife from the descendants of your father and do not marry an alien, who is not from your father’s tribe. Remember: we are descendants of the prophets, among whom are Noah, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, our ancient ancestors, who took wives from among their relatives. They were blessed in their children, and their descendants will inherit the land. 13 So now, my son, love your kindred, and in your heart do not disdain your relatives: the sons and daughters of your tribe. Do not be too proud to take a wife for you, from your own nation. Pride brings ruin and anarchy; and in idleness there is loss; for idleness is the mother of famine.

14 Do not keep back the wages of a person who works for you until the next day. The workers are to be paid at once. If you serve God you will receive payment. Be careful, my son, in all your activities and always be disciplined in your actions. 15 Do to no one what you yourself would hate. Do not drink wine in excess, do not let drunkenness become a habit. 16 Provide some of your bread for the hungry, and of your clothes to the naked. Give of your surplus as a donation where needed and do not look upon your gifts begrudgingly. 17 Place your bread [28] on the grave of the righteous, [29] but do not give to sinners. 18 Accept the advice of sensible people and never fail to trust such advice.] 19 On all occasions, bless the Lord God, and ask for his guidance, to make your way of life straight, so that all your plans and paths may prosper. The other nations lack in understanding, but the Lord, himself, will provide them with good counsel, but if he chooses not to do so, he casts them down to the deepest abode. So now, my child; remember these commandments, and do not let them be erased from your being.”

Money Left in Trust with Gabael

20 Now, my son, let me explain to you about ten talents of silver which I left with Gabael the son of Gabrias at Rages in Media. 21 Do not be afraid, my son, because we are poor. You have great wealth if you are filled with awe and reverence toward God and avoid every sin and do what is good in the eyes of the Lord your God.”


The Angel Raphael

1 Then Tobias answered his father Tobit, “I will do everything that you have commanded me, father, 2 but how can I obtain the money [30] [since he does not know me and I do not know him. What proof can I give him to make him give me the money?. [31] Additionally: I do not know the roads that lead to Media, how am I to get there:”] 3 Then Tobit gave his son a document (or, receipt) and said, “ [He gave me his bond and I gave him my bond. I divided his in two; we each took one part, and I put one with the money. Now twenty years have passed since I left the money in trust. Now my son, find a man who is trustworthy to go with you, and I will pay him wages until you return. Be sure to get back the money from Gabael.”] Find a man to go with you and I will pay him wages.

4 Then Tobias went to look for a man to go to Media with him, someone for whom the way was well known. As he went out he found the angel Raphael standing in front of him, but he did not recognize him to be an angel of God. 5 Tobias said to him, “Where are you from, young man? Can you accompany me to Rages?” [The young man replied: “I come out of the same ancestry, the Israelites, and I have come here to work.] Then Tobias said to him, “Do you know the way to Media?” The young man replied, “Yes, I am acquainted with that region.” 6 [The angel then continued “I know the way. I have gone to Media many times.] I will go with you. I am familiar with the way, and I would stay with your kinsman Gabael who lives in Rages of Media. It is a two day journey from Ecbatana to Rages, for it is located in the mountainous area, while Ecbatana is located in the middle of the plain.”] 7 Then Tobias said to him, “Wait for I will tell my father, [for I do need you to travel with me and I will pay you your wages”] 8 He replied: “I will wait, but do not take too long!”

8 Tobias then went in and told his father Tobit: ”I hae jut found a man who is one of us, an Israelite, who will travel with me.” Tobit said, “Call him in so that I may learn about his family and to what tribe he belongs, and whether he is trustworthy enough to accompany you in your travels.”

10 Then Tobias went out and called the young man, [saying, “Young man, my father is calling for you!” He went in and greeted Tobit first. He replied “Joyous greetings to you!” Tobit said, “What joy is left for me these days? I am a man who has no eyesight, I cannot even see the light of day. Even though I am still alive, I am among the dead. I hear people but I am unable to see them.” The young man replied, “Be of good courage; the time is near when God will heal you! Take courage.” Then Tobit said, to him, “My son Tobias wants to go to Media. Can you accompany him as his guide? I will pay your wages, my brother.” He answered: “I am able to go with him, and I know all the roads, for I have often gone to Media and have crossed all its plains, and I am well familiar with all its mountains and all its roads.]

11 Then Tobit said, “My brother, to what family do you belong and from what tribe?” Tell me, my brother. I would like to know your family and your name.” 12 He replied, “Why do you want to know my tribe?” Tobit said, “I want to be certain whose son you are and what your name is.” 13 He answered, “I am Azariah, the son of the great Hananiah, one of your relatives.” 14 Tobit then said, [“Welcome! May God save you, my brother. Do not be angry with me, my brother. I wanted to be certain about your ancestry. It is a good and noble heritage! I knew Hananiah and Nathan, the two sons of Shemeliah, and they used to go to Jerusalem with me, and worshiped with me there, and were not led astray. Your relatives are good people; you come from good stock. A hearty welcome to you!] 15 Tobit then added: “I will pay you a drachma plus your expenses for yourself and for my son. Accompany my son.”

16 [“I will add something to your wages.” Raphael answered: “Do not worry. I will go with him. We will leave in good health and will return to you in good health, because the way is safe.” 17 Tobit said, “Blessings on you, my brother.”

Then he called his son and said to him, “Son, prepare supplies for your journey and set out with your brother. [May the God of heaven bring you safely there and back to me in good health; and may his angel, my son, accompany your both safely.”] They both then departed and their dog went with them

[Before he went out to start his journey he kissed his father and mother. Tobit then told his son, “Have a safe journey.”]

18 His mother, Anna, began to weep, and said to Tobit, “Why have you sent my child way? Is he not the staff of our hand as he goes in and out before us? 19 Do not look to money as riches, for it is like rubbish compared to our child.” 20 The life that is given to us by the Lord is long enough for us.Your eyes will see him on the day when he returns to you in good health. Say no more! Do not be fearful for them, my sister. 21 Calm down. A good angel will go with them on their journey, which will be successful, and he will return safe and sound.” So she stopped weeping. 22 [A good angel will accompany him, and his journey will be successful, and he will return in good health.]


1 His mother, Anna stopped weeping. [32]

Journey to Rages

The young man went out and the angel went with him, 2 and the dog also came along. They journeyed on together, and the first night they camped by the Tigris river. 3 The young man went down to the river to wash [his feet]. Suddenly a large fish leaped up from the river and would have swallowed the young man’s feet, causing the young man to shout, 4 and the angel said to him, “Catch the fish, and hold it tightly.” The young man seized the fish and dragged it up on the land. 5 The angel then said to him, “Cut open the fish and take out the heart, liver and gall, putting them aside in a safe place, but throw away the intestines. The gall, heart and liver will be useful as medicine.” 6 Then, having cut open the fish, the young man gathered the gall, heart and liver, after which he roasted the fish, saving a portion of it to be salted.

The two continued together on their journey until they reached the vicinity of Media. 7 It was then that the young man questioned the angel, asking, “Brother Azariah, what is the medicinal value in the heart, liver and gall of the fish?” 8 ”The heart and liver of the fish are to be burned in order that smoke might rise in the presence of any man or woman who is afflicted by a demon or evil spirit, and through this fumigation every evil spirit or demon will flee, never remaining with that person to cause trouble any longer. 9 Now as to the gall, anoint the eyes of a person that has white film covering them and having done so blow on the white film and the eyes will be healed.

10 When he entered Media and was nearing Ecbatana, 11 Raphael said to the young man, “Brother Tobias.” He answered, “Here I am.” Then Raphael said to him, “Tonight we must stay in the house of Raguel. He is your relative, and he has only one daughter whose name is Sarah. 12 [He has no male heir and no other daughter other than Sarah. You are the next of kin to her, and because you are the next of kin you have priority above all other men, thereby having a hereditary claim on her. Additionally, it is right for you to inherit her father’s possessions. Be assured that the girl is sensible, brave, and extremely beautiful. Her father is a good man.” 13 He then added, “You have every right to take her in marriage. Listen to me, brother, tonight I will speak to her father about the girl, so that we may taker her to become your bride. When we return from Rages we will celebrate her marriage. I know that Raguel is unable to prevent your being married to her, or to promise her to another man. To do that would incur the penalty of death that is decreed in the book of Moses. [33] In fact, he knows that you, ahead of any others, are entitled to marry his daughter. Therefore: now listen to me, brother, and tonight we will speak concerning the girl and arrange her engagement to you. When we return from Rages we will take her and bring her back with us to your house.”]

14 It was then that Tobias replied to Raphael. “Brother Azariah, I have heard that she has already been married to seven husbands, and each one died in the bridal chamber. On the night that they entered into the bridal chamber to be with her they died. [I have also heard people say that it was a demon that killed them. 15 The evil spirit does not harm her but it kills every one who is desirous to approach her.] Now: I am my father’s only son. I am fearful that I will die and bring my parent’s life down to the grave in grief for me, for they have no other son who would be in the position to bury them.”

16 Raphael said to him, “Do you not remember the orders your father gave when he commanded that you take a wife from your father’s house? Listen to me, my brother, and say no more about this demon. Take her! I know that this very night she will be given to you in marriage. 17 [When you enter the bridal chamber, take some of the fish liver and heart and place these on the embers of the burning incense. An odor will be given off, 18 and the demon will smell the odor and will flee, never again to be seen near her. Now when you are about to go to bed with her, both of you must first stand up and pray, pleading to the Lord of heaven that mercy and safety might be granted to you. Fear not, for she was set apart for you prior to the creation of the world. You will save her and she will go with you. It is my feeling that you will have children by her, and they will be as close as brothers to you. Now: not another word!”] When Tobias heard the words of Raphael, and learned that she was his relative, related through his father’s line he loved her very much and his heart was drawn in love toward her.


Recension Alpha

[`1 When he came to Ecbatana, Tobias said, “Brother Azariah, lead me straight to our brother Raguel.” He led him to the house of Raguel, and they found him sitting by the door of the courtyard, and they saluted him first, and he said to them: “Much cheer to you, brothers, and you are welcome in safety. He brought them into his house.]

Recension Gamma

[1 They came to Ecbatana, and arrived at the house of Raguel. Sarah met them, and she saluted them, and they saluted her, and she brought them into the house.]

Arrival at the House of Raguel

1 Now when they entered Ecbatana, Tobias said, “Brother Azariah, take me straight to our brother Raguel.” So he took him to Raguel’s house where they found him sitting beside the courtyard door. They greeted him first and he replied; “Joyous greetings, brothers, welcome, and good health to you.” He then brought them into his house. 2 Raguel said to his wife, Edna, “That young man looks very much like my relative Tobit!” 3 Edna then asked, “Where are you from, brothers?” They replied, “We belong to the descendants of the tribe of Naphtali, who are living in exile in Nineveh.” 4 She then said, “Do you know our relative Tobit?” They responded, “Yes, we know him.” She then inquired, “Is he in good health?” 5 They answered, “Yes, he is alive and in good health.” Tobias answered, “He is my father.” 6 When he heard this Raguel jumped up and kissed Tobias and wept. 7 Raguel then spoke, saying, “Bessings on you, my child, son of a good and noble father. [(When he heard that Tobit had lost his sight, he was moved by grief and wept.)] “What a terrible tragedy that such an honest and generous man should have lost his sight.” He then embraced his relative, Tobias, and wept. 8 His wife, Edna, also wept for him and their daughter Sarah also wept. 9 They were received as guests very warmly. Raguel then went out and slaughtered a ram from his flock.

Marriage of Tobias and Sarah

When they had bathed and washed their hands, and had reclined to dine, Tobias said to Raphael, “Brother Azariah, ask Raguel to give me my relative Sarah.” 10 Raguel overheard what Tobias had said, and replied, “Eat and drink, be merry tonight. No one, other than you, brother, has the right to marry my daughter Sarah. In fact, I am not permitted to give her to anyone other than yourself, since you are the closest relative. I must explain something more fully, however, concerning my daughter. 11 I have given her to seven men, all related to us, and all died on the night when they entered the bridal chamber. Eat and drink now, and the Lord will act on behalf of both of you.” Tobit said, “I will not eat nor drink until everything that pertains to me is taken care of.” [So Raguel answered, “I will do that! She will be given to you in accordance with what is stated in the book of Moses, and surely that has been decreed even prior to the creation of the sky, namely, that she is given to you. Take her, your kinswoman, for from now on you are as brother and sister. She is given to you today and forever. My child, may the Lord of heaven guide you and cause you to prosper and tonight grant you mercy and peace.”] 12 Then Raguel called his daughter, Sarah. When she came he took her by the hand and gave her to Tobias, saying, “Take her to be your wife in accordance with the law and decree of the book of Moses. Take her, and bring her safely to your father. May the God of heaven provide you with safety and peace.13 Then he called her mother and told her to bring a parchment scroll, pen and ink and he proceeded to write out a copy of a marriage contract, stating that he gave his daughter Sarah to Tobias as his wife, according to the decree of the law of Moses. 14 They then began to eat and drink.

` 15 Raguel then called his wife Edna, and said “Sister, get the other room ready, and taker her there.” 16 She went and they made the bed in the room as he had told her and brought Sarah there and she wept for her daughter. Then wiping away the tears she comforted her daughter, and said to her, 17 Be brave, my child! The Lord of heaven and earth will guard you and grant you favor [34] in place of sorrow. Take courage, my daughter.” Then her mother left.


Tobias Routs the Demon

1 When they had finished eating and drinking they were sleepy and they brought Tobias into the bridal chamber, 2 and as he went in he remembered the words of Raphael and took the powdered liver and heart of the fish from the sack in which he had kept them and put them on the hot embers of the incense. 3 The odor of the fish repelled the demon so much that it fled to the most remote parts of Upper Egypt. [35] Raphael followed the demon and immediately bound it there, hand and foot. 4 When Sarah’s parents left the room and shut the door Tobias got out of bed and said to Sarah, 5 “Sister, get up and let us pray and implore the Lord that we might be granted mercy and safety.” Tobias began by saying:

“Blessed are you, O God of our ancestors,

and blessed is your name in all generations forever.

Let the heavens and the entire creation bless you forever.

6 You made Adam, and for him you made his wife, Eve,

as a helpmate and supporter,

from whom the nations of the earth have come.

You said, ‘It is not good that man should be alone,

let us make a helper for him like himself.’

7 Now I am taking this relative of mine,

not because of lust, but with sincerity.

Grant that the two of us may receive your mercy,

and that we can grow old together.”

8 They both said, “Amen, Amen.” [36] 9 Then they went to sleep for the night.

Raguel, however, arose and called for his servants, and they went out and dug a grave, 10 for he stated, “It is possible that he will die and we will become the laughing stock of the community and a source of derision..” 11 When they had finished digging the grave Raguel went into the house and called to his wife, 12 saying, “Send one of the maids and have her light a lamp and go in to see if he is alive. If he is not alive, let us bury him without anyone knowing it.” 13 They then sent in a maid with a lamp. She opened the door and having looked in saw that nothing was wrong. 14 As the maid came out she reported that he was alive and nothing was wrong. 15 Having received this message they blessed the God of heaven, and Raguel said,

“Blessed are you, O God, with every pure and holy blessing,

let all your chosen ones bless you. [37]

Let them bless you forever.

16 Blessed are you because you have made me glad.

It has not happened as I had expected,

but your dealings are filled with great mercy.

17 Blessed are you because you had compassion

on two -- only children.

Be merciful to them, O master, and keep them safe,

bring their lives to fulfillment

in happiness and mercy.”

18 Then he ordered his servants to fill in the grave before sunrise.

The Wedding Feast

19 [After this had taken place he asked his wife to bake a very large amount of bread, and he went out to the herd and he brought two oxen and four rams and gave the order that these be slaughtered. It was in this way that preparations were beginning.] After this he gave a wedding feast which continued for fourteen days. 20 Before the time of the wedding feast was over Reguel declared that Tobias must take an oath that he would not leave before the end of the fourteen day festivities. [“Eat and drink with us. Do not break my daughter’s heart for she has suffered much (or, had been depressed).”] 21 Reguel also declared that Tobias would receive, as an inheritance and wedding gift from him of one half of Raguel’s property and the rest would be his upon Raguel’s death. [“Be assured, my son, I am your father and Edna is your mother now and in the future. We are as close to you as we are to your wife. You have nothing to fear, my son.”]


The Money Recovered

1 Then Tobias called Raphael and said to him, 2 “Brother Azariah, take four servants and two camels with you and travel to Rages. Go to the home of Gabael, and give him the document (or, receipt), get the money, and then bring him with you to the wedding celebration. 4 You are surely aware that my father must be counting the days, and if I postpone my return for even one day I will have upset him greatly. [38] 3 You have witnessed the oath that Raguel has made and I feel I dare not violate his oath by leaving prior to the conclusion of the marriage feast.” 5 Raphael then went to Rages in Media, with four servants and two camels and stayed with Gabael. Raphael gave him the document (or, receipt) and also informed him that Tobias is married and he has invited Gabael to come to the wedding feast. Then Gabael rose and brought the money bags, with their seals intact, [and counted out the money that was in the bags.] He then placed the money in heaps (or. loaded the bags of money) on the camels to return the money to Tobias. 6 This having been attended to, Gabael and Raphael rose early and traveled together to the wedding feast. Upon arrival they found Tobias reclined at the table. He jumped up and greeted Gabael, who wept and blessed Tobias [as follows: “Good and noble son of a father who is noble and good, upright and generous! May the Lord bless you and your wife, and your wife’s father and mother. Blessed be God, for I see the very image in Tobias of my cousin Tobit.”] [39]


Anxiety of the Parents

1 Tobit had counted how many days it would take for Tobias to make his journey, figuring the time it took to go and return. When that time had passed and Tobias had not returned , 2 he said, ”It is possible, isn’t it, that he has been detained? [40] Or that Gabael has died and he has had difficulty in getting the money.” 3 Tobit began to worry. 4 His wife said, “My child is dead. “ She began to weep and mourn for her son, saying, 5 Woe to me, my child, who has been the light of my eyes, [has perished and is no longer living,] woe that I permitted him to make the journey.” [She said, “Am I a mother who didn’t care about her son, since I let him go, he who was near and dear to me is no longer alive.”] 6 Tobit kept saying to her, “Be quiet! Stop worrying, my dear! [41] He is all right. Something that was unexpected no doubt turned up . The man who accompanied him is trustworthy and is one of our relatives. Stop grieving for him, my dear, he will soon return.” 7 She would answer: “You be quiet yourself! Stop trying to deceive me. My child is dead.” She would hurry out every day and watch the road her son had taken and would not listen to anyone. She would remain there until evening, and when the sun had set she would return home and go into the bedroom and weep all night long, getting no sleep, and refusing to eat.

Tobias and Sarah Start for Home

At the end of the fourteen days of the wedding celebration that Raguel and sworn to observe for his daughter, Tobias came to Reguel and said, “Send me back, for I know that my father and mother truly believe that they will never see me again. So I beg you, father, to let me return to my own father. I have already explained how he was when I left him.” 8 Raguel said to Tobias, “Stay, my child, stay with me, and I will send a messenger to your parents who will inform them about you..” 9 He said, “No, my father, I beg you to permit me to return to my father.” 10 Then Raguel promptly gave Tobias his wife, Sarah, and the permission to return to his father. He also gave them half of his property, male and female slaves, oxen, and sheep, donkeys and camels, clothing, money and household goods (or, chattels). 11 Then he sent them on their way, embracing Tobias, and said, “Farewell, my child, and have a safe journey. May the Lord of heaven cause you and your wife to prosper, and may it be that I will see the children of you and Sarah, before I die. 12 Then he kissed his daughter Sarah, and said to her, “My daughter, honor your father-in-law and your mother-in-law, since from now on they are as much your parents as we, who gave you birth. Go in peace, my daughter, and may it be that I hear a good report about you as long as I live.” Then he wished them farewell and let them go. Edna then said to Tobias, “My child and dear brother, may the Lord of heaven bring you back safely, and may I live long enough to see children born to you and to my daughter Sarah before I die. In the sight of the Lord I have entrusted you with my daughter. Cause her no grief during all the days of your life. Go in peace! From now on I am your mother and Sarah is your beloved wife. May we all prosper together all the days of our lives.” Then she kissed them both and saw them leaving. 13 Tobias parted from Reguel with happiness and joy, giving praise to the Lord of heaven and earth, who is king over all, because he had made a successful journey. Finally, he blessed Reguel and his wife Edna, and said, “I have been commanded by the Lord to honor you all the days of my life.”


The Homeward Journey

1 When they approached Kaserin, [42] which is opposite Nineveh, Raphael said, 2 “You are aware of how you left your father? Let us run ahead of your wife and prepare the house while they are still on the way. 4 As they traveled on together Raphael said to Tobias, “Have the gall ready.” The dog [43] walked behind them.

5 In the meantime Anna was looking intently down the road by which they would come. 6 When she caught sight of Tobias coming, she shouted to his father, “Look! Your son is coming, and the man who went with him!”

Tobit’s Sight is Restored

7 Raphael said to Tobit, before he had approached his father, “I know that his eyes will be opened. 8 Smear some of the gall of the fish on his eyes; [the medicine will make his eyes smart, for the white films will shrink, he will rub his eyes and thus peel the white film from his eyes, You can then blow away the dust that is left,] and your father will again his sight and see the light.”

9 Then Anna ran up to her son and threw her arms around him, saying, “Now that I have seen you, my child, I am ready to die.” She wept. 10 Tobit then got up, stumbling as he was coming out of the courtyard door. Tobias went up to him, 11 and applied the gall (or, medication) to his father’s eyes, saying, “Be encouraged, father.,” while he completed applying the medicine to his father’s eyes. 12 This caused the eyes of Tobit to smart.[44] 13 Tobit rubbed his eyes with both hands and the white films peeled off from the corners of his eyes. It was then that Tobit saw his son Tobias and threw his arms around him, 14 and wept, saying to him, “I see you, my son! There is light in my eyes!” Then he said,

“Blessed be God,

and blessed is his great name;

and blessed are all his holy angels.

May his holy name be blessed

across all the ages if the universe.

15 Though I have been afflicted grievously, [45]

he has had mercy toward me. [46]

Now I can see my son Tobias.”

So Tobit went, rejoicing at the top of his lungs, and praising God. Tobias reported to his father about the journey he had made, that it was successful, he had obtained, and brought the money, he had married Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, and that she was coming, for she was approaching the gate of Nineveh.

16 Tobit rejoiced and praised God as we went out to meet his daughter-in-law at the gate of Nineveh. When the people of Nineveh saw him coming, [walking vigorously with no one leading him], they were amazed. 17 Tobit, in the presence of all who had assembled, acknowledged that God had been merciful to him, having restored his sight. When Tobit met Sarah, the wife of his son Tobias, he blessed her and said, “Come in, my daughter, and welcome. Blessed is the God who brought you to us, my daughter. Blessed also are your father and mother. Blessed also is my son Tobias and blessed are you, my daughter, Sarah. Come, enter your home, for you are welcomed with blessing and joy. Come in, my daughter! So on that day there was rejoicing among all the Jews who lived in Nineveh. 18 Ahikar and his nephew Nadab [47] were present to share Tobit’s joy. They celebrated Tobias’ wedding feast for seven days and he received many gifts. [48]


Raphael’s Wages

1 At the conclusion of the wedding celebration Tobit called his son Tobias to him and said: “My child, see to paying the wages of the man who went with you and give him an additional bonus as well.” 2 Tobias said, “Father, how much should I pay him? It would seem fair to give him half of all the possessions that I brought back with me. 3 He has led me back to you, he cured my wife, he [went to get the money, and] brought the money back to me, he healed you. How much extra should I give him as an additional bonus?” 4 Tobit said, “My child, he deserves to receive half of all that you brought back.” 5 So Tobias called him and said, “Take for your wages half of all that you brought back, and farewell.”

Raphael’s Exhortation

6 Then Raphael called the two privately and said to them, “Bless God and acknowledge him in the presence of all the living, for the good things he has done for you. Bless and sing praises to his name. [49] Declare God’s deeds to all people, with fitting honor, do not be slow to acknowledge him. 7 It is good to conceal the secret of a king, but to acknowledge and reveal the works of God with fitting honor is to acknowledge him. Do good and evil will not overtake you. 8 Prayer and fasting [50] are good but giving alms with righteousness is better than both. A bit or righteousness is better than wealth and wrongdoing. [51] It is better to distribute alms than to hoard gold. 9 The giving of alms saves from death and is able to purge every sin. Those who give alms will enjoy a full life, 10 but those who do wrong and commit sin are their own worst enemies.”

Raphael Discloses His Identity

11 “I will present the entire truth to you and I will not hold back anything from you. I already declared it to you when I said, ‘It is good to conceal the secret of a king but reveal with due honor, the works of God.’ 12 Now then: when you and Sarah prayed, it was I who brought and read the record of your prayer before the glory of the Lord, and it was the same when you buried the dead. 13 That time when you did not hesitate to get up and you left your dinner to go and bury the dead, 14 I had been sent to test you, but at the same time God sent me to heal you and to heal Sarah, your daughter-in-law, 15 for I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who stands ready and enters before the glory of the Lord.”

16 Tobit and Tobias were both alarmed, and they prostrated themselves on their faces, for they were shaken. 17 He said to them, “Fear not! You will be safe. Bless God forevermore. 18 As for me, when I was with you I was not acting on my own will, but the will of God. Bless God each and every day, sing his praises. 19 Even though you were watching me, I really did not eat or drink anything--but what you saw was a vision.”

Recension Gamma: [20 Now bless the Lord here on the earth, and give thanks. I answer to the one who sent me. I wrote down all the things that happen to you,” 21 and he ascended, rising up so that he was no longer seen, and they praised God and gave thanks for these great works that he had accomplished, having been an angel of God who had appeared before them.”]

Recension Alpha: [20“All these days I appeared with you, I did not eat nor drink; but it was a vision you, yourselves saw. Now give thanks because I ascend to the one who sent me. I wrote, in a book, all the things which have been done.” 21 Then he rose and they no longer saw him. They declared the great and wonderful works of God and how the angel of the Lord had appeared to them.]

20 ”So now get up from the ground and bless the Lord of the earth, for I am ascending to him who sent me, to write everything that had taken place in a book [while I was on the earth. You must praise the Lord God and give him thanks. Now I must go back to him who sent me and write the record.”] 21 They then stood up and were unable to see him anymore. 22 They kept on blessing God and singing his praises [52] and acknowledging the wondrous deeds that took place when an angel of God appeared to them.


Tobit’s Thanksgiving to God

1 Then Tobit said:

“Blessed be God who lives forever,

because his kingdom lasts throughout the ages.

S He afflicts and he shows mercy,

he leads down to the abode of the dead,

to the lowest places of the earth,

and he rings up from the great abyss, [53]

and there is nothing that can escape his hand


3 Acknowledge God before the nations,

O children of Israel;

he has scattered you among them.

4 He has shown you his greatness [54] even there.

Exalt him in the presence of every living person,

because he is our Lord and he is our God,

he is our Father and he is God forever.

5 He will afflict [55] you for your misdeeds,

but he will also show mercy on all of you.

He will gather you from among all the nations,

among whom you have been scattered.

6 If you turn to him with your heart and your soul,

to do what is true before him,’

then he will turn to you,

and will no longer hide his face from you.

See what he has done for you;

acknowledge him at the top of your voice.

Bless the Lord of righteousness,

and exalt the King of the ages.

[In the land of my exile I acknowledge him, [56]

and show his power and majesty

to a nation of sinners.

Turn back, you sinners, and do

what is right before him;

possibly he will look with favor

upon you and show his mercy.

7 As for me, I will exalt my God,

and my soul rejoices in the King of heaven.

8 Let all the people speak of his majesty,

and acknowledge him in Jerusalem.

9 O Jerusalem, the holy city,

he afflicted (or, will afflict) you for the deeds

you have done, [57]

but will again have mercy on the

children of righteousness.

10 Acknowledge the Lord for he is good, [58]

and bless the King of the ages,]

so that his tent (or, tabernacle)

may be rebuilt in you in joy.

May he cheer all those who are

captives within you,

and love all those within you

that are distressed.

to all future generations.

11 A bright light will shine on all

the ends of the earth,

many nations will come to

you from great distances.

the inhabitants of the most remote

parts of the earth, to your holy name,

bearing gifts in their hands for

the King of heaven.

Generation after generation will

give joyful praise to you,

the name of the chosen city will endure.

12 Cursed are all those who speak

a harsh word against you, \

cursed are all who conquer you

and pull down your towers,

all who overthrow your towns,

and set your homes on fire.

But blessed forever will be

all who revere you. [59]

13 Go, then, and rejoice over

the children of righteousness.

for they will be gathered together

and will praise the Lord of the ages.

14 Happy are those who love (or, revere) you,

and happy are those who rejoice

in your prosperity.

Happy also are all people who grieve with you,

because of your afflictions;

for they will rejoice with you

and witness all your glory forever.

15 My soul blesses [60] the Lord, the great King!

16 Jerusalem will be rebuilt as a city,

to be his house for all ages.

How happy I will be if a remnant

of my descendants should suvive

to see your glory, and

acknowledge the King of heaven.

The gates of Jerusalem will be

built with sapphire and emerald,

and your walls with precious stones.

The towers of Jerusalem will be built of gold,

and their battlements with pure gold.

The streets of Jerusalem will be paved

with ruby and with stones of Ophir.

17 The gates of Jerusalem will sing hymns of joy,

and all the houses will cry, ‘Hallelujah!

Blessed be the God of Israel!’

and blessed will be the

holy name forever and ever.”


Tobit’s Final Counsel

1 It was in this way that Tobit ended his words of praise. 2 Tobit died in peace when he was one hundred twelve years old, and was buried with great honor in Nineveh. He was sixty-two [61] years old when he lost his eyesight, and after regaining it he lived in prosperity, giving alms and continually blessing God and acknowledging God’s majesty.

3 When he was about to die, he called his son Tobias and the seven sons of Tobias [62] and gave this command: “My son, take your children 4 and hurry off to Media, for I believe the word of God that Nahum spoke about Nineveh, that all these things will take place and overtake Assyria and Nineveh. Indeed everything that was spoken by the prophets of Israel, whom God sent will occur. None of all their words will fail, but all will come true at their appointed times. So it will be safer in Media than in Assyria and Babylon. For I know and believe that whatever God has said will be fulfilled and will come true, not a single word of the prophecies will fail. All of our kindred, inhabitants of the land of Israel, will be scattered and taken as captives from the good land, and the whole land of Israel will be desolate, even Samaria and Jerusalem will be desolate. And the temple of God in it will be burned to the ground, and it will be desolate for a while. [63]

5 “But God will again have mercy on them, and God will bring them back into the land of Israel; and they will rebuild the temple of God, but not like the first one until the period when the times of fulfillment will come. After this they all will return from their exile and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor; and in it the temple of God will be rebuilt, just as the prophets of Israel have said concerning it. 6 Then the nations of the entire earth will all be converted and worship God in truth. They will all abandon their idols which have deceitfully led them into error; 7 and in righteousness they will praise the eternal God. All the Israelites who are saved in those days and are truly mindful of God will be gathered together; they wll go to Jerusalem and live in safety forever in the land of Abraham, and it will be given over to them. Those who sincerely love God will rejoice, but those who commit sin and injustice will vanish from all the earth.

8 So now, my son, leave Nineveh because of what the prophet Jonah [64] said will surely happen. 9 but keep the law and the commandments and be merciful and just, so that it may be well with you. Your children are also to be commanded to do what is right in the sight of God, and give alms and be mindful of God and to bless God’s name at all times with sincerity and with all their strength. 10 On what ever day you bury your mother beside me, do not stay overnight within the confines of the city. I can see that there is much wickedness within it, and that much deceit is practiced within it, while the people are without shame. See, my son, what Nadab did to Ahikar who had reared him. Wasn’t he, while still alive, brought down into the earth? For God repaid him to his face for this shameful treatment. Ahikar came out into the light, but Nadab went into eternal darkness, because he tried to kill Ahikar. Because he gave alms, Ahikar [65] escaped the fatal trap that Nadab had set for him, but Nadab fell into it himself, and was destroyed. 11 So now, my children: see what almsgiving accomplishes, and what injustice does—it brings death! But now my breath fails.”

The Death of Tobit and Anna

Then they laid him on his bed and he died, and he received an honorable funeral. 12 When Tobias’s mother died, he buried her beside his father. Then he and his wife and children, returned to Media, and settled in Ecbatana with Raguel, his father-in-law. 13 He treated them with great respect in their old age, and buried them in Ecbatana of Media. He inherited both properties, from his father Tobit and his father-in-law, Raguel. 14 He died, highly respected at the age of one hundred seventeen years. 15 Prior to his death he heard of the destruction of Nineveh, and he witnessed prisoners being led into Media, who had been taken captive by king Cyaxares of Media,[66] Tobias praised God for all that he had done to the people of Nineveh and Assyria before he died, and he blessed the Lord for ever and ever. Amen. [67]

[5] Some manuscripts omit “of Raphael, son of Raguel, of the descendants.”

[6] The LXX has “Enemessaros.” The use of the names of historical figures are used in this translation as they are found in history, rather than the names that are used in the Greek source of Tobit.

[7] Some manuscripts read: “heifer.”

[8] So: Vulgate, LXX: Hananiel.”

[9] Some manuscripts give her name as “Anna.”

[10] Other manuscripts say “forty-five” of “fifty.”

[11] LXX: Sacherdonus.”

[12] Other manuscripts read “Hananael.”

[13] LXX: “wholeheartedly mindful.”

[14] Some manuscripts omit the last phrase.

[15] Literally: “him.”

[16] Some manuscripts say: Bethlehem.”

[17] Cf.: 1:20.

[18] Some manuscripts have ”women’s work.”

[19] Some manuscripts have “you render true and righteous judgment forever.”

[20] Other manuscripts say “strangles.”

[21] Some manuscripts omit “O Lord.”

[22] “Arranging a marriage” might be a more correct translation.

[23] Some manuscripts say, “imminent death.”

[24] Some manuscripts omit the phrase, “about the money.”

[25] Tobit imparts his philosophy prior to mentioning the ten talents left under the care of Gabael, and should be collected by Tobias.

[26] In Codex Sinaiticus verses 7 -18 are omitted.

[27] There are several textual variants in this verse so it is an attempt to translate as clearly as possible.

[28] Some manuscripts have: “Pour out your bread.”

[29] It is possible that the meaning is: “When one of God’s faithful people dies, prepare food for the family, but do not do this when an evil person dies.”

[30] Literally: “it.”

[31] The portion of the sentence in brackets [ ] comes from a different recension. As this manuscript continues all passages having a different recension will be in brackets.

[32] The numbering of the verses in his chapter is based on the manuscript of the longer recension.

[33] Cf. the fourth paragraph of the introduction to the book of Tobit.

[34] The word can mean either “joy” or “favor.”

[35] In those days “Upper Egypt” which is southern Egypt, was considered to be the most remote place in the known world by those who lived around the Mediterranean Sea.

[36] Amen means “So shall it truly and surely be.”

[37] This line is omitted in some recessions.

[38] The recensions do not agree. Some have verse 4 ahead of verse 3. This seems to be logical for the movement of the story.

[39] Recension Gamma seems to have been radically abbreviated so that no portion of the end of the recension is able to be read intelligently. Attempts have been made to restore the wording to a readable condition. The portion that can be read is: “Praise be to God that I have seen my cousin Tobias, so like his father.”

[40] Some manuscripts say: “are put to shame” or “they are disappointed.”

[41] Literally; my sister.”

[42] Recension Gamma omits the name of the city.

[43] Codex Sinaiticus reads “And the Lord.” This is not the case in 6:2 when the dog is also mentioned.

[44] So: Vulgate. The meaning of the Greek word is uncertain.

[45] Codex Sinaiticus has: “May his great name be upon us and blessed be all the angels.”

[46] This line appears in Latin, not in Greek.

[47] The name “Nadab” is absent in the Greek manuscripts but appears in translations. It is also spelled “Nabar.”

[48] This sentence does not appear in all recensions.

[49] Some recensions have “deeds.”

[50] Codex Sinaiticus adds: “with sincerity.”

[51] So in Latin.

[52] Several manuscripts have “hymns.”

[53] Other recenisins read: “forever, and his kingdom.”

[54] Another possible translation would be: “Make his greatness known there, and exalt his presence to all the living.”

[55] Some manuscripts have: “He afflicted us.”

[56] There is a lacuna in Codex Sinaiticus at this point through verse 10a.

[57] Another recension has “the deeds of your children.”

[58] Another recension has “for he is worthy.”

[59] Another recension has “who build you up.”

[60] Or: “O my soul.”

[61] Other recensions have “fifty-five.”

[62]and the seven sons of Tobias” is not in the Greek manuscripts but in the Latin translations.

[63] Other recensions have: “of God will be in distress and will be burned for a while.”

[64] Some scholars feel that Nahum should be used here instead of Jonah since it is used in 14:4. Jonah, however prophesied about the destruction of Nineveh, and this is where Tobit lived.

[65] Other sources say: Manasses.”

[66] Other sources suggest different names: “Ahikar,” “Nebuchadnezzar: or “Ahasuerus.”

[67] Some sources add the word “Amen.”